Desert 'alien' skeleton mystery finally solved


A mummified skeleton believed to be an alien has been found to be a baby with rare gene mutations.

The discovery in 2003 of the tiny mummy, named Ata, found in a leather pouch buried behind a church in Chile’s Atacama Desert sparked international intrigue.

Many at the time believed it to be an extraterrestrial due to the large alien-like head and small body.

However, scientists have found it was actually a baby girl with a series of rare gene mutations linked to dwarfism, deformities and apparent premature ageing.

Researchers said the discovery could lead to treatments for people with bone problems and who have badly broken their bones.

The study, published in journal Genome Research, found the child was not aged six to eight as previously thought, but was born prematurely and did not live long.

Her deformities had led experts to believe she was years older because of the advanced wear on the bones which they now believe is because of her deformities.

They also found that the very much intact skeleton is not ancient but probably no more than 40 years old.

The Atacama desert
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The skeleton was found buried behind a church in Chile’s Atacama Desert

Researchers used DNA extracted from the bone marrow to carry out a whole-genome analysis which found she had “genetic variations that identified her as being from the Andean region inhabited by the Chilean Chilote Indians”.

The skeleton also had only 10 pairs of ribs compared to the usual 12 pairs.

Senior author Garry Nolan, professor of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine, said “a relatively short list of mutations in genes known previously to be associated with bone development” were found in genes related to dwarfism, scoliosis, and musculoskeletal abnormalities.

Some were previously known to scientists but others were not.

Researchers said a nearby mine may be to blame for the child’s deformities.

“While we can only speculate as to the cause for multiple mutations in Ata’s genome, the specimen was found in La Noria, one of the Atacama Desert’s many abandoned nitrate mining towns, which suggests a possible role for prenatal nitrate exposure leading to DNA damage,” the study said.

Mr Nolan added: “Maybe there’s a way to accelerate bone growth in people who need it, people who have bad breaks.

“Nothing like this had been seen before. Certainly, nobody had looked into the genetics of it.”

He called for the skeleton, which is owned by a Spanish archeological collector, to be returned to Chile so it can be buried according to local custom.

Dead Star Trek actor's family reach deal with Fiat


The parents of late Star Trek actor Anton Yelchin have settled a wrongful death claim against the makers of the car which killed him.

The confidential settlement agreement between Victor and Irina Yelchin and Fiat Chrysler was filed and agreed on Thursday, with the carmaker saying it was “pleased that we’ve reached an amicable resolution in this matter”.

Although the late actor’s parents have not yet commented on the settlement, their lawyer Gary Dordick said the money would go to the Anton Yelchin Foundation and fund a documentary on his life.

Anton Yelchin died in June last year when his Jeep Grand Cherokee crushed him between a letterbox and a fence at the doorstep of his LA home.

Star Trek actor Anton Yelchin
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Anton Yelchin died of accidental blunt force asphyxia

The 27-year-old got out of his car in his driveway, failing to securely put it in “park”. The vehicle than rolled backwards down the steep path towards him.

He died of accidental blunt force asphyxia.

The US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) said in February that 2015 models of the vehicle – like Yelchin’s – could continue to move after drivers thought they had locked them in “park”, and linked the issue to more than 100 crashes.

 at Beverly Hills Marriott on August 2, 2016 in Beverly Hills, California.
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Victor and Irina Yelchin with lawyer Gary Dordick in April 2016

Manufacturer Fiat Chrysler’s US unit issued a recall for hundreds of thousands of Jeep Grand Cherokees and other models in April to address the problem.

“We continue to extend our deepest sympathies to the Yelchin family for their tragic loss,” Fiat Chrysler said.

Yelchin moved to the US when he was six months old with his parents, who were star figure skaters with the Leningrad Ice Ballet, and made his film debut at the age of nine in A Man Is Mostly Water.

His breakout performance came in the 2006 crime thriller Alpha Dog, and his movie credits include JJ Abrams’ three Star Trek films and last year’s critically acclaimed Green Room.

Misreading Trump: Ally Japan Is Spurned on Tariff Exemptions


To be sure, Mr. Abe is not the first American ally to be so spurned. Theresa May of Britain, Justin Trudeau of Canada and Angela Merkel of Germany have all had turns at being Mr. Trump’s slighted friend.

Japan could yet win an exemption from the new tariffs. Mr. Trump’s announcement offered a path for countries left off the initial list to “discuss with the United States alternative ways to address the threatened impairment of the national security caused by imports of steel articles.” This week, Japan’s trade minister, Hiroshige Seko, told reporters there was a “high chance” that some of its steel and aluminum products would be exempted.

But for anyone who has been paying attention, there have been hints all along that in matters of trade, Tokyo should regard Mr. Trump as much “frenemy” as friend.

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Share prices dropped on the Tokyo Stock Exchange on Friday in response to revived trade war fears.

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Kazuhiro Nogi/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

During the presidential campaign, he seemed to harbor three-decades-old perceptions of Japan, chastising it for “crushing” the United States in trade, invoking the specter of the 1980s and the height of the trade wars between the two countries. After he was elected, he threatened to impose a “big border tax” on Toyota if it built a new auto plant in Mexico.

In niggling comments during a visit to Tokyo last fall, Mr. Trump told Japanese executives to “try building your cars in the United States instead of shipping them over,” ignoring the fact that Japanese carmakers build nearly four million vehicles in plants in the United States annually, more than twice the number the industry ships from Japan.

On Friday, Mr. Seko, the trade minister, said it was “extremely regrettable” Japan had not immediately been exempted from the steel and aluminum tariffs.

Still, analysts said Japanese officials probably realized it was only a matter of time before Mr. Trump took action on trade.

“They knew that this was a president who had pretty well-established views when it came to how he thought about Japan and the economic relationship with the U.S.,” said Tobias Harris, a vice president and Japan analyst at Teneo Intelligence, a political risk consultancy based in New York.

What’s more, tensions between Japan and the United States are hardly unique to Mr. Trump’s administration.

“If you look back far enough, periods of friction amidst close security cooperation goes back to the early 1970s and is more the rule than the exception,” Mr. Harris said. “I just don’t believe that official Japan convinced themselves that because of the rapport between the two leaders, that they were going to escape scrutiny.”

Analysts said Mr. Trump had left Japan off the exemption list as a negotiating tactic to try to force it into bilateral free-trade talks.

“He wants something like some concessions from Japan regarding the auto market or maybe agriculture,” said Shujiro Urata, dean and professor in the Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies at Waseda University in Tokyo. “So in order to get these concessions, this could be a very effective strategy.”

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A Toyota display at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit in January. Mr. Trump’s criticism of Japanese carmakers has ignored the fact they build millions of vehicles in the United States each year.

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Carlos Osorio/Associated Press

When announcing $60 billion in tariffs against China on Thursday, Mr. Trump directed a sugarcoated barb against Japan and Mr. Abe.

“I’ll talk to Prime Minister Abe of Japan and others — great guy, friend of mine — and there will be a little smile on their face,” Mr. Trump said. “And the smile is, ‘I can’t believe we’ve been able to take advantage of the United States for so long.’ So those days are over.”

Analysts said that Mr. Trump was clearly playing to his domestic audience.

“He has to promote this to his supporters in the United States,” said Kazuhiro Maeshima, professor of politics at Sophia University. “In the history between Japan and the United States over the past 30 years, Japan has been seen as an archenemy in the trade wars, so the voters’ image of Japan is bad. The reality is that China dominates the trade deficit, but the reality and image are different.”

In any case, the tariffs are unlikely to hurt Japan’s economy that much. The country’s steel exports to the United States represent just 5 percent of its total steel exports, and it produces very little aluminum.

“The real serious problem for the world is China’s excessive production,” said Masahiko Hosokawa, a professor at Chubu University and a former director of the American division of Japan’s Trade Ministry.

“Unless the problem of China’s excessive steel production is resolved, the products will only flood into Asian markets if the U.S. stops importing them,” Mr. Hosokawa said. “The products that are supposed to go to the U.S. will flood the Asian market and steel prices will continue to decline.”

Mr. Trump’s actions feed concern in Asia about Chinese dominance. Because he is “unpredictable and kind of capricious,” Mr. Urata said, more countries will perceive the United States as “a very difficult country to work with that we cannot trust and rely on,” leaving a void that China will increasingly fill.

In the immediate term, Japan’s hand is weakened by the fact that Mr. Abe is embroiled in a scandal involving allegations that he influenced a sweetheart land deal for a crony.

That will make it more difficult for Mr. Abe to negotiate with Mr. Trump from a position of strength, or to persuade Japanese businesses to consider any trade concessions. “Mr. Abe’s power to persuade businesses and to talk with the U.S. is much weaker than it was even two months ago,” Mr. Maeshima said.

Then again, Mr. Trump could reverse course at any moment.

Under the tariff laws, the United States “could exempt Japan tomorrow, or they could decide ‘no, no, no, Europe and Canada, we’re actually going to apply this law to you,’” said Chad Bown, a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington. “It gives tremendous discretion to the president to do whatever he wants.”

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Elon Musk deletes Facebook pages amid privacy row


Elon Musk has deleted the official Facebook pages for his SpaceX and Tesla brands amid concerns over the security of the social network.

The tech billionaire claimed he was unaware the pages even existed before he responded to a request on Twitter to deactivate them.

The Tesla CEO’s very own Elon Musk page has also been removed in the act of digital cleansing, which comes as Facebook boss Mark Zuckerberg faces questions over his handling of the Cambridge Analytica scandal.

The SpaceX and Tesla pages had more than 2.6m likes each before they were taken down.

The Tesla page had more than 2.6m likes before it was taken down
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The Tesla page had more than 2.6m likes before it was taken down

Responding to a Twitter’s user plea for him to delete his Facebook accounts, Musk tweeted: “What’s Facebook?”

Another user then intervened with: “Delete SpaceX page on Facebook if you’re the man?”

Musk replied: “I didn’t realise there was one. Will do.”

Later, the billionaire said Tesla’s Facebook page looked “lame”, adding that Instagram, which is owned by Facebook, was “borderline” but his companies would continue to use it.

He said: “Instagram’s probably ok imo [in my opinion], so long as it stays fairly independent.

“I don’t use FB & never have, so don’t think I’m some kind of martyr or my companies are taking a huge blow. Also, we don’t advertise or pay for endorsements, so…don’t care.”

The #deletefacebook campaign has picked up support in the wake of the Cambridge Analytica scandal, in which information from millions of Facebook profiles was allegedly harvested by the UK political consultancy firm.

More from Cambridge Analytica

Facebook has seen $37bn (£26bn) wiped off its value over the claims, which are being investigated by the UK’s Information Commissioner as well as European authorities.

Mr Zuckerberg said he was “open” to testifying before the US Congress after admitting it was “clearly a mistake” to trust Cambridge Analytica in 2015 when it said it would delete the data it had gained from Facebook.

British Authorities Search Offices of Cambridge Analytica


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British regulators searching the London offices of Cambridge Analytica on Friday, hours after a judge approved a search warrant.

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Daniel Leal-Olivas/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

British investigators on Friday night searched the London offices of Cambridge Analytica, the data-analytics company that harvested data from 50 million Facebook users to develop psychological profiles on behalf of political campaigns, including that of President Trump.

About 20 investigators from Britain’s data watchdog, the Information Commissioner’s Office, descended on the company’s offices on New Oxford Street after obtaining a search warrant from the High Court.

“We are pleased with the decision of the judge, and the warrant is now being executed,” the office of the information commissioner, Elizabeth Denham, said in a statement. “This is just one part of a larger investigation into the use of personal data and analytics for political purposes. As you will expect, we will now need to collect, assess and consider the evidence before coming to any conclusions.”

Last Saturday, the same day The New York Times and The Observer of London published a detailed look at the company’s use of Facebook data, Ms. Denham’s office announced an investigation into “the circumstances in which Facebook data may have been illegally acquired and used.”

The office said the inquiry would “consider how political parties and campaigns, data analytics companies and social media platforms in the U.K. are using and analyzing people’s personal information to micro target voters.”

The police search carried out on Friday night had been expected. The revelations about the company’s data use have set off a storm on both sides of the Atlantic.

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Data row firm offices raided after court order


Eighteen enforcement officers have been searching Cambridge Analytica’s London office after the High Court granted a warrant.

The Information Commissioner’s Office applied for the legal order to access the company’s records and data amid allegations it illegally harvested information from 50 million Facebook users.

The ICO said it was “pleased with the decision of the judge”.

Enforcement officers working for the Information Commissioner's Office entering the offices of Cambridge Analytica in central London after a High Court judge granted a search warrant. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Picture date: Friday March 23, 2018. See PA story COURTS Cambridge. Photo credit should read: Yui Mok/PA Wire
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Cambridge Analytica is being investigated by the ICO

“This is just one part of a larger investigation into the use of personal data for political purposes and we will now need time to collect and consider the evidence,” it said.

Their search appeared to be continuing throughout the night, with officials seen taking photos of a whiteboard and computers and taking notes on a clipboard.

Cambridge Analytica, which uses data to change the behaviour of internet users, was hired by Donald Trump’s campaign team during the 2016 presidential race.

The shared building which houses the offices of Cambridge Analytica are pictured in central London on March 21, 2018. The academic behind the app which harvested data from 50 million Facebook users said Wednesday he was being used as a scapegoat in the row over online privacy. Aleksandr Kogan said that British firm Cambridge Analytica, which is at the centre of a major scandal rocking Facebook, assured him that what he was doing was 'perfectly legal and within the terms of service' of the social
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The shared building houses the offices of Cambridge Analytica

There are claims the information it unlawfully obtained was given to Mr Trump’s campaign strategists to provide an insight into the thoughts of American voters, ultimately influencing the election.

The data watchdog’s investigation includes the acquisition and use of the data by Cambridge Analytica, its parent company SCL and academic Dr Aleksandr Kogan.

Dr Kogan is the University of Cambridge professor who developed the app ‘This Is Your Digital Life’ through his company Global Science Research (GSR) in collaboration with Cambridge Analytica.

The app offered payment in return for users filling out a personality test and Facebook says it was downloaded by 270,000 people.

The app also allegedly gave Mr Kogan access to the lists of the downloaders’ Facebook friends.

ICO search offices of Cambridge Analytica in London
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Both Cambridge Analytica and Facebook deny any wrongdoing

Cambridge Analytica’s chief executive Alexander Nix has been suspended while Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg has been called on to give evidence to MPs.

The judge told the court he will give his reasons for granting the application for the warrant on Tuesday.

Both Cambridge Analytica and Facebook deny any wrongdoing.

Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg on Wednesday admitted the company “made mistakes” but said steps had been taken to protect users.

He says he is “open” to testifying before the US Congress on the scandal.

Retiring: Single? No Kids? Don’t Fret: How to Plan Care in Your Later Years


With a brother on the West Coast and no nieces or nephews to step in, Ms. Peveler has, through her church and several civic activities, developed a surrogate family of friends and neighbors, many of them several decades younger, who keep tabs on her. For added protection, she signed up for a service, EyeOn App, that signals three friends if she does not reply within a half-hour to scheduled alerts on her cellphone.

“Once, I didn’t respond, and everyone called me,” she said. “My next-door neighbor sent her daughter over.”

Although no plan is foolproof, Ms. Peveler said she was as confident as she could be. “I know people would have my back,” she said.

Ms. Peveler is among a growing number of older Americans who are unmarried and childless. By 2030, about 16 percent of women 80 to 84 will be childless, compared with about 12 percent in 2010, according to a 2013 report by AARP.

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Ms. Peveler, 71, said she felt confident about the network she had created. “I know people would have my back,” she said.

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Jeremy M. Lange for The New York Times

While Ms. Peveler is trying to control the risks of aging alone, many so-called elder orphans may not fare as well. Older single and childless people are at higher risk than those with children for facing medical problems, cognitive decline and premature death, according to a 2016 study led by Dr. Maria Torroella Carney, chief of geriatric and palliative medicine at the Northwell Health system on Long Island. The study noted that about 22 percent of people 65 and older either are childless or have children who are not in contact.

Adult children typically help elderly parents negotiate housing, social-service and health care options. Without such a fallback, elder orphans can reduce their risks by building their own support structures, Dr. Carney said.

“People who are aging alone need to make plans when they are independent and functional,” she said. “They need to learn about the resources in the community and the appropriate time to start using them.” Those services could include senior-friendly housing and the growing number of home-delivered products and services aimed at the aging-solo market, such as healthy meals and doctors who make house calls, she said.

One of the first steps childless people should take is to hire an elder law lawyer, who can draw up documents that will protect them if they become incapacitated. Childless people typically turn to a friend, a lawyer, clergy, or a niece or nephew to make medical decisions, according to experts. A bank’s trust unit can take on financial tasks, with a friend, a relative or a lawyer monitoring the bank’s decisions.

Christina Lesher, an elder law lawyer in Houston, suggests appointing a “micro board,” which includes the lawyer, the health care and financial agents, an accountant and a geriatric care manager. “The board can step in if a client cannot make decisions,” Ms. Lesher said. The client could assign a network of friends and neighbors to call the lawyer in an emergency or if they notice any cognitive decline.

As for housing, Dr. Carney recommends that people aging alone consider a senior-friendly “congregate living” arrangement. Besides offering a variety of services, such housing can lessen isolation, which her research shows can lead to physical and cognitive decline. If that is not possible, she said, elder orphans should move closer to shopping, medical care, recreation and senior support services.

One housing option with a built-in support system is a continuing care retirement community. Residents usually start in an independent living unit and, depending on the care needed, move to an on-site assisted-living unit or a skilled-nursing facility. Entrance and monthly fees tend to be hefty, however. Typical entry fees range from just over $100,000 to more than $400,000 while monthly services fees can range from $2,000 to $4,000, according to MyLifeSite, which tracks the pricing and financial information of more than 800 C.C.R.C.s.

With no one to oversee their care, elder orphans who want to remain in their own homes for as long as possible could enlist a geriatric care manager, who monitors elderly clients and coordinates care.

In Washington, D.C., clients of Iona Senior Services, for example, can arrange for a care manager to be on call as their health deteriorates, said Deborah Rubenstein, director of consultation, care management and counseling programs. If a client is discharged from a hospital, for example, the care manager, in consultation with the designated health care agent, would arrange for rehabilitation or home care, she said.

“More and more people were coming to us and saying, ‘I’m O.K. now, but I’m realistic enough to know my health status could change,’” Ms. Rubenstein said. Iona charges $150 an hour.

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Carol Marak of Dallas created a Facebook group two years ago for so-called elder orphans. What stood out, she said, was the number of members concerned about being “isolated and disconnected.”

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Dylan Hollingsworth for The New York Times

Meanwhile, a growing number of volunteer neighborhood groups are providing both social connections and practical help to older people who are at home alone. More than 200 organizations in the Village to Village Network, including “villages” in the New York area, provide rides to medical appointments, snow removal, home repairs and computer support. Villages in 150 additional neighborhoods are in development. Tax-deductible membership fees can range from $100 to $400.

Entrepreneurs and companies, many nationwide, are moving into the so-called longevity market. On-demand services, accessible by a phone app or a computer, can connect people to personal assistants and food delivery.

“The on-demand marketplace will be the best friend of elder orphans,” said Mary Furlong, a Silicon Valley consultant to companies that cater to seniors.

For example, the ride-hailing service Lyft is working with health care systems and retirement communities to provide rides to nonemergency medical appointments and other destinations. And because financial acuity often declines with age, childless singles can enroll in a service such as EverSafe, which monitors accounts for unusual spending and alerts the client or a trusted advocate of possible fraud.

In-home technology, like medication reminders, also can help people live alone safely longer, experts say. Besides her EyeOn home-monitoring system, Ms. Peveler uses an Amazon Alexa device.

“If I am reading a recipe, I can tell her what to put on a shopping list,” said Ms. Peveler, who has a harder time remembering some details since her mini-strokes. And just for fun, she may tell Alexa “to make cat noises, and one of my cats goes nuts.”

For those aging solo, expanding a social network is essential, according to experts on aging. Two years ago, Carol Marak, who is in her mid-60s and lives alone in Dallas, started the Elder Orphan Facebook Group.

“I wanted a place to feel less lonely and to connect with others in the same situation,” said Ms. Marak, who is also the spokeswoman for SeniorCare.com, a site that provides information on local care options. About 6,500 childless singles, mostly women, are members, she said.

Ms. Marak said she was struck by the number of members who worried about being “isolated and disconnected from the community.” She said she was trying hard to create her own social connections. She moved from a suburban house to a downtown condominium building, where she is making new friends. And she has organized brunches for Dallas members of the Facebook page.

Determined to stay healthy for as long as possible, Ms. Marak said she walks six miles a day and eats mostly vegan meals. “I need to keep stronger because I am totally responsible for myself,” she said.

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Corbyn accused of 'Stalinist purge' over Smith sacking


Jeremy Corbyn has been accused of a “Stalinist purge” after he sacked Owen Smith – who challenged him for the leadership in 2016 – from the Shadow Cabinet.

Mr Smith was removed from his job as shadow Northern Ireland secretary after attacking Brexit and urging the Labour Party to campaign for a second EU referendum in a newspaper article.

He is replaced by the veteran former minister Tony Lloyd, who only returned to the Commons last year after quitting as an MP in 2012 to become police and crime commissioner for Greater Manchester.

With Mr Corbyn already under attack over his response to the Russian poisoning crisis and rows in the party over anti-Semitism, Mr Smith’s sacking threatens to reopen the civil war in the Labour Party.

Immediately after his dismissal, a defiant Mr Smith tweeted: “Just been sacked by @jeremycorbyn for my long held views on the damage #Brexit will do to the Good Friday Agreement & the economy of the entire U.K.

“Those views are shared by Labour members & supporters and I will continue to speak up for them, and in the interest of our country.”

And within minutes there was a wave of support for Mr Smith on Twitter from Labour MPs critical of Mr Corbyn.

Former Northern Ireland secretary Peter Hain tweeted: “This is a terrible Stalinist purge @OwenSmith_MP has been doing a terrific job on Northern Ireland.

“He’s ideal for the role with his experience expertise and considerable ability. Widely respected. In a Shadow Cabinet with few big hitters he was definitely one.”

Former Shadow Cabinet member and leading Remainer, Chuka Umunna, said: “It’s extraordinary that a Shadow Cabinet member – doing an excellent job in their brief – should be sacked for standing up for our principles and advocating a Brexit policy that commands the overwhelming support of our members, supporters and voters. What has happened to our party?”

Labour MP Angela Smith tweeted: “@OwenSmith_MP took a principled position today re single market and customs union. Vindictive response from leadership a mistake.”

And another MP, Wes Streeting, added: “If only anti-semites were dealt with as swiftly and severely as Remainers.”

:: Corbyn slammed over stance on anti-Semitic mural

Tony Lloyd
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Tony Lloyd has already replaced Owen Smith

Announcing Mr Smith’s sacking, the Labour Party said: “Owen Smith MP has been asked to stand down as Shadow Northern Ireland Secretary, and has been replaced by Tony Lloyd with immediate effect.”

Mr Corbyn said: “Tony is a highly experienced former Government Minister who is committed to ensuring that peace in Northern Ireland is maintained and helping to steer the devolution deal back on track.”

Mr Lloyd said after his appointment: “As we leave the European Union, ensuring there is no hard border between Northern Ireland and the Republic is of paramount importance and this will be my number one priority.

“This is an incredibly important job, with a huge in-tray and I am looking forward to starting work.”

Mr Smith’s dismissal came within hours of him breaking ranks with Mr Corbyn by reopening the question of whether Brexit is “the right choice for the country”, and urging Labour to offer the public a referendum on the final deal.

The Pontypridd MP, who challenged Mr Corbyn for the Labour leadership in 2016, only returned to the Shadow Cabinet less than a year ago after last year’s general election.

He has argued strongly for Labour to back a customs union with the EU27, something that has now become party policy.

But in an article for the Guardian, he said Labour could only “serve democracy” by recommending a poll on the Brexit deal.

“Labour needs to do more than just back a soft Brexit or guarantee a soft border in Ireland,” he argues.

“Given that it is increasingly obvious that the promises which the Brexiters made to the voters, especially, not only their pledge of an additional £350m a week for the NHS, are never going to be honoured, we have the right to ask if Brexit remains the right choice for the country,” he wrote.

“And to ask, too, that the country has a vote on whether to accept the terms and true costs of that choice once they are clear.”

‘The Whole World Should Be Concerned’: U.S. Allies React to Bolton’s Appointment


But Mr. Bolton is also a strong supporter of the NATO alliance and a much harsher critic of Russia and President Vladimir V. Putin than is Mr. Trump, Mr. Janning noted. That point may help protect the president from suggestions that he is “soft on Russia.”

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An Iranian soldier passing pictures of the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, left, and his predecessor Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, right, in Tehran. Mr. Bolton and the new secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, share Mr. Trump’s view that the nuclear deal with Iran should be renegotiated or scrapped.

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Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

“Bolton is relentless, intelligent and effective,” said François Heisbourg of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, who as a French military analyst dealt with Mr. Bolton during the administration of George W. Bush. “But he’s not a neoconservative and has no interest in democracy promotion. He is a man of the Trumpian world — no allies, no multilateralism.”

Stephen Bush of the center-left British magazine New Statesman said that Mr. Bolton was “the man who makes neoconservatives say, ‘Steady on, old chap.” ’

Nigel Sheinwald, a former British ambassador to Washington and to the European Union, also dealt with Mr. Bolton on Iran and arms control.

“He tried to push Bush policy in a much more extreme direction,” Mr. Sheinwald said. “Given that the U.S. and the U.K. had so much at stake together, he was oddly deaf to the idea that America had allies and was very critical of the U.K. in almost everything we did,” especially over Iran.

Mr. Bolton’s ascension promises strains with American allies both in Europe and in Asia — first over the nuclear deal with Iran and then over the nuclear capacity of North Korea.

The crisis most expect to arise first concerns Iran, with both Mr. Bolton and the new secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, sharing Mr. Trump’s view that the 2015 Iran nuclear deal, negotiated by the United States the other permanent members of the Security Council and Germany, should be renegotiated or scrapped. With the departure of Secretary of State Rex W. Tillerson and of Mr. Bolton’s predecessor, Lt. Gen. H. R. McMaster, Defense Secretary Jim Mattis is a more lonely voice arguing that the deal, however flawed, is better than any alternative.

Mr. Bolton’s opposition to the negotiations with Iran is longstanding, dating from his days in the Bush administration, when he helped derail European talks with Tehran at a time it still had only a few centrifuges, Mr. Heisbourg said.

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President Trump, at NATO headquarters in Brussels last year, accused member countries of “chronic underpayments” to the organization.

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Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

“Bolton wanted us to fail,” Mr. Heisbourg said. “Had we gotten into serious negotiations 10 years before, the Iran deal would be very different, and we could have had the deal people like Bolton say they want now.”

If Mr. Trump withdraws from the Iran deal in mid-May and imposes new American sanctions, as now seems very likely, the other signatories to the agreement, especially the Europeans, will have a difficult choice. They can try to protect the deal, in defiance of Washington. Or they can blame its failure on Mr. Trump, try to draw Iran into another round of talks and threaten further sanctions themselves if Iran resumes enrichment of uranium to military grade.

While Mr. Bolton’s appointment was welcomed in Israel, with the education minister, Naftali Bennett, calling him “an extraordinary security expert, experienced diplomat and a stalwart friend of Israel,” the official Iranian response called him a “supporter of terrorists” now in “the highest political position in Trump’s totalitarian government.”

The appointment of Mr. Bolton has set teeth on edge in Asia, where American allies are highly anxious about a developing nuclear crisis that appears all but inevitable. Mr. Bolton, Mr. Pompeo and Mr. Trump all say that North Korea could face pre-emptive warfare if it does not agree to dismantle its nuclear weapons.

“People are trying to avoid appearing terrified,” said Tong Zhao, a nuclear policy expert at the Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy in Beijing. “But people are deeply concerned.”

He noted that Mr. Bolton’s appointment followed the imposition of tariffs, a Nuclear Posture Review and other steps that signal a worrisome deterioration in relations as Washington increasingly treats China as a strategic competitor.

In that respect, Shi Yinhong, a professor of international relations at Renmin University in Beijing, said that the choice of Mr. Bolton, while a surprise, would not change an already antagonistic tone. “Almost everyone in the Trump administration now takes a harsh or hard-line posture toward China,” he said. “I think Bolton will not be an exception.”

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The North Korean leader, Kim Jong-un, right, meeting in Pyongyang with South Korean envoys this month.

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South Korean presidential office, via Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Lee Byong-chul, senior fellow at the Institute for Peace and Cooperation in Seoul, said that South Korea must now manage its “very bad chemistry” with Mr. Bolton, “who is all about sticks.”

Mr. Bolton has derided South Korea for trying to play peacemaker with Pyongyang, saying the South was “like putty in North Korea’s hands.”

“We will have to see if Bolton opens his mouth and launches his verbal attacks against the North,” Mr. Lee said. “That will give North Korea an excuse to step away from its summit proposal. The Trump-Bolton team then will ramp up pressure. And we will hear more talk about a pre-emptive strike and see tensions rising again on the Korean Peninsula.”

Others thought he might temper his words, but China would still worry about Mr. Bolton having Mr. Trump’s ear, said Chen Dingding, a professor of international relations at Jinan University in Guangzhou, China.

“He’s a hard-liner, not just toward China but to the whole world,” Mr. Chen said. “North Korea, Iran, the European Union, the United Nations — every side — it’s not just China. But he does represent a worldview of the Trump administration, one of ‘America First’ and unilateralism over multilateralism. I think the whole world should be concerned, not just Asia.”

For Xenia Wickett, a former official at the National Security Council who now directs the United States and Americas Program at the London research organization Chatham House, Mr. Bolton “knows his portfolios and is eminently qualified for the job.” But the concern, she said, is that he “is extremely far toward the hawkish end of the national security world.”

A good national security adviser, who does not need confirmation by Congress, has a strong relationship with the president, with his own team and with Congress, she said. Mr. Bolton will have “a good relationship with Trump, a mixed relationship with his staff and a not very good relationship with Congress,” she said, suggesting that even Republicans there would have been unlikely to confirm him had that been required.

The best national security advisers coordinate policy more than they run it, she said, wondering: “Can Bolton do the coordination thing?”

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‘The Whole World Should Be Concerned’: U.S. Allies React to Bolton’s Appointment


But Mr. Bolton is also a strong supporter of the NATO alliance and a much harsher critic of Russia and President Vladimir V. Putin than is Mr. Trump, Mr. Janning noted. That point may help protect the president from suggestions that he is “soft on Russia.”

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An Iranian soldier passing pictures of the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, left, and his predecessor Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, right, in Tehran. Mr. Bolton and the new secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, share Mr. Trump’s view that the nuclear deal with Iran should be renegotiated or scrapped.

Credit
Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

“Bolton is relentless, intelligent and effective,” said François Heisbourg of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, who as a French military analyst dealt with Mr. Bolton during the administration of George W. Bush. “But he’s not a neoconservative and has no interest in democracy promotion. He is a man of the Trumpian world — no allies, no multilateralism.”

Stephen Bush of the center-left British magazine New Statesman said that Mr. Bolton was “the man who makes neoconservatives say, ‘Steady on, old chap.” ’

Nigel Sheinwald, a former British ambassador to Washington and to the European Union, also dealt with Mr. Bolton on Iran and arms control.

“He tried to push Bush policy in a much more extreme direction,” Mr. Sheinwald said. “Given that the U.S. and the U.K. had so much at stake together, he was oddly deaf to the idea that America had allies and was very critical of the U.K. in almost everything we did,” especially over Iran.

Mr. Bolton’s ascension promises strains with American allies both in Europe and in Asia — first over the nuclear deal with Iran and then over the nuclear capacity of North Korea.

The crisis most expect to arise first concerns Iran, with both Mr. Bolton and the new secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, sharing Mr. Trump’s view that the 2015 Iran nuclear deal, negotiated by the United States the other permanent members of the Security Council and Germany, should be renegotiated or scrapped. With the departure of Secretary of State Rex W. Tillerson and of Mr. Bolton’s predecessor, Lt. Gen. H. R. McMaster, Defense Secretary Jim Mattis is a more lonely voice arguing that the deal, however flawed, is better than any alternative.

Mr. Bolton’s opposition to the negotiations with Iran is longstanding, dating from his days in the Bush administration, when he helped derail European talks with Tehran at a time it still had only a few centrifuges, Mr. Heisbourg said.

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President Trump, at NATO headquarters in Brussels last year, accused member countries of “chronic underpayments” to the organization.

Credit
Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

“Bolton wanted us to fail,” Mr. Heisbourg said. “Had we gotten into serious negotiations 10 years before, the Iran deal would be very different, and we could have had the deal people like Bolton say they want now.”

If Mr. Trump withdraws from the Iran deal in mid-May and imposes new American sanctions, as now seems very likely, the other signatories to the agreement, especially the Europeans, will have a difficult choice. They can try to protect the deal, in defiance of Washington. Or they can blame its failure on Mr. Trump, try to draw Iran into another round of talks and threaten further sanctions themselves if Iran resumes enrichment of uranium to military grade.

While Mr. Bolton’s appointment was welcomed in Israel, with the education minister, Naftali Bennett, calling him “an extraordinary security expert, experienced diplomat and a stalwart friend of Israel,” the official Iranian response called him a “supporter of terrorists” now in “the highest political position in Trump’s totalitarian government.”

The appointment of Mr. Bolton has set teeth on edge in Asia, where American allies are highly anxious about a developing nuclear crisis that appears all but inevitable. Mr. Bolton, Mr. Pompeo and Mr. Trump all say that North Korea could face pre-emptive warfare if it does not agree to dismantle its nuclear weapons.

“People are trying to avoid appearing terrified,” said Tong Zhao, a nuclear policy expert at the Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy in Beijing. “But people are deeply concerned.”

He noted that Mr. Bolton’s appointment followed the imposition of tariffs, a Nuclear Posture Review and other steps that signal a worrisome deterioration in relations as Washington increasingly treats China as a strategic competitor.

In that respect, Shi Yinhong, a professor of international relations at Renmin University in Beijing, said that the choice of Mr. Bolton, while a surprise, would not change an already antagonistic tone. “Almost everyone in the Trump administration now takes a harsh or hard-line posture toward China,” he said. “I think Bolton will not be an exception.”

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The North Korean leader, Kim Jong-un, right, meeting in Pyongyang with South Korean envoys this month.

Credit
South Korean presidential office, via Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Lee Byong-chul, senior fellow at the Institute for Peace and Cooperation in Seoul, said that South Korea must now manage its “very bad chemistry” with Mr. Bolton, “who is all about sticks.”

Mr. Bolton has derided South Korea for trying to play peacemaker with Pyongyang, saying the South was “like putty in North Korea’s hands.”

“We will have to see if Bolton opens his mouth and launches his verbal attacks against the North,” Mr. Lee said. “That will give North Korea an excuse to step away from its summit proposal. The Trump-Bolton team then will ramp up pressure. And we will hear more talk about a pre-emptive strike and see tensions rising again on the Korean Peninsula.”

Others thought he might temper his words, but China would still worry about Mr. Bolton having Mr. Trump’s ear, said Chen Dingding, a professor of international relations at Jinan University in Guangzhou, China.

“He’s a hard-liner, not just toward China but to the whole world,” Mr. Chen said. “North Korea, Iran, the European Union, the United Nations — every side — it’s not just China. But he does represent a worldview of the Trump administration, one of ‘America First’ and unilateralism over multilateralism. I think the whole world should be concerned, not just Asia.”

For Xenia Wickett, a former official at the National Security Council who now directs the United States and Americas Program at the London research organization Chatham House, Mr. Bolton “knows his portfolios and is eminently qualified for the job.” But the concern, she said, is that he “is extremely far toward the hawkish end of the national security world.”

A good national security adviser, who does not need confirmation by Congress, has a strong relationship with the president, with his own team and with Congress, she said. Mr. Bolton will have “a good relationship with Trump, a mixed relationship with his staff and a not very good relationship with Congress,” she said, suggesting that even Republicans there would have been unlikely to confirm him had that been required.

The best national security advisers coordinate policy more than they run it, she said, wondering: “Can Bolton do the coordination thing?”

Continue reading the main story